Definition of Crime and Criminology

Differential (subcultural) association postulates that people learn about crime through association. This theory was advanced by Edwin Sutherland, who focused on how “a person becomes a delinquent due to an excess of definitions favorable to violations of the law compared to definitions unfavorable to violations of the law.” [25] If you associate with people who tolerate criminal behaviour or who can justify crimes in certain circumstances, you are more likely to take this view. Interaction with this type of “antisocial” peer is a major cause of delinquency. The intensification of criminal behaviour makes it chronic. Where there are criminal subcultures, many people learn about crime, and crime rates are increasing in those areas. [26] The theory of social disorganization is based on the work of Henry McKay and Clifford R. Shaw of the Chicago School. [28] The theory of social disorganization postulates that neighborhoods plagued by poverty and economic deprivation tend to have high rates of population turnover. [29] This theory suggests that criminality and deviance within social groups, “subcultures” or “gangs” are valued. These groups have values that are different from the social norm. These neighborhoods also tend to have a high heterogeneity of the population. [29] With a high turnover rate, an informal social structure often does not develop, making it difficult to maintain social order in a community.

State crime is a separate field of crime that is studied by Marxist criminology. These crimes are known to be among the most costly for society in terms of overall damage/injury. We source the causes of genocide, environmental destruction and war. These are not crimes that occur out of contempt for their fellow human beings. These are crimes of power to continue to control and hegemonic systems that allow state crime and state and corporate crime, as well as non-profit criminals, to continue to rule the people. [65] The value of the persecution of criminology from the perspective of a queer theorist is controversial; Some believe that this is not worth studying and is not relevant to the field as a whole, and therefore, it is a subject that has a wide range of research. On the other hand, it could be argued that this issue is very useful in highlighting how LGBT people are affected by the criminal justice system. This research also has the opportunity to “queer” the criminology curriculum in educational institutions by shifting the focus from the control and surveillance of LGBT communities to their liberation and protection. [69] According to the Marxist perspective on crime, “mistrust is normal – the feeling that men are now consciously involved. by safeguarding their human diversity”. Thus, Marxist criminologists argued for a society in which the facts of human diversity, whether social or personal, were not criminalized. [63] Moreover, they attributed the processes of crime creation not to genetic or psychological facts, but to the material basis of a particular society.

[64] Recent criminal justice research focuses on quantitative studies on the effectiveness of certain anti-crime strategies and approaches. The researchers investigated whether the arrest of an abusive spouse prevents future cases of violence and whether prison rehabilitation programs are effective in reducing relapses. A public crime or injustice must be distinguished from a private misdemeanour or injustice. In fact, the same act can be both a crime and a misdemeanour. For example, the alleged murders of Nicole Simpson and Ron Goldman by O.J. Simpson included the offences of assault, assault and unlawful death. Simpson`s alleged actions resulted in criminal prosecution (punishment) and a civil claim for damages. Positivist and classical schools have a coherent view of crime: that a crime is an act that violates the fundamental values and beliefs of society. These values and beliefs manifest themselves in the form of laws on which society agrees. However, there are two types of laws: biosocial criminology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to explain crime and antisocial behavior by studying both biological and environmental factors. While contemporary criminology has been dominated by sociological theories, biosocial criminology also recognizes the potential contributions of fields such as genetics, neuropsychology, and evolutionary psychology.

[58] Various theoretical frameworks such as evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory have attempted to explain crime trends through the prism of evolutionary biology. In particular, they try to explain why crime is much higher among men than among women and why young men are more likely to exhibit criminal behaviour. [59] See also: Genetics of assault. The main difference between criminology and criminal justice is the former`s emphasis on the study of crime and the latter`s emphasis on society`s response to crime, as the Balance Careers explains. Criminal justice applies the principles and concepts developed by criminologists to enforce laws and investigate crimes, as well as to the trial, punishment and rehabilitation of criminals. But what is criminology really? This article will explore the many components of this rapidly developing discipline and provide insights on how to pursue a variety of careers in criminology. Delinquency tends to occur among lower-class men who lack resources and live in poor areas, as Albert Cohen (Cohen, 1965) mentioned at length. We know that prejudice occurs in law enforcement, where public servants tend to impose prejudice on minority groups without knowing for sure whether or not they have committed a crime.