Describe the Ethical and Legal Issues of Advance Directives Including the Role

Perkins, H. S., Geppert, C., Gonzales, A., Cortez, J. D., & Hazuda, H. P. (2002). Cross-cultural similarities and different attitudes towards advance care planning. Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Innere Medizin, 17 (1), 48-57. doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2002.01032.x Ethical questions such as “Is it morally justifiable to stop medical treatment or commit suicide?” are fundamental to my understanding and stand at the forefront of an ethical reflection on “How can I want to die / what is my prospect of a (morally) good death”? But I understand this last question to mean that it “precedes” the context of planning one`s own decisions about the end of life – as a precedent chronologically and in everyday life. In addition, the questions of an ethics of duty and the questions of an ethics of a good life cannot be separated in the definition of the responsibilities of Members, because here personal values and virtues such as trust and love define moral duties such as responsibility and responsibility (for example, in the case of “My son, in whom I trust more than my daughter, should decide, when life support treatment should be stopped if I can no longer communicate”). Rurup, M.

L., Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B. D., Van der Heide, A., et al. (2006). Frequency and determinants of living wills on end-of-life care in the Netherlands. Social Science & Medicine, 62, 1552–1563. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.08.010 Which of the following does NOT help to describe a bottom-up estimation approach A Sahm, S., Will, R., & Hommel, G. (2005). Attitudes and barriers to writing living wills for cancer patients, check-ups and medical staff.

Zeitschrift für Medizinethik, 31, 437-440. doi:10.1136/jme.2004.009605 A living will never takes precedence over the simultaneous wishes of a patient who is able to make decisions. The American Academy of Family Physicians supports the principle that every individual has the right to determine what medical treatment they will receive, including the life-sustaining treatment provided if the person has an incurable condition. Haker, H. (1999). Moral identity. Literary life stories as a means of ethical reflection. Tübingen: Francke Verlag. Living wills seem like a good idea, but they are controversial. Controversies include issues such as whether living wills create more confusion than clarity about a patient`s wishes, whether they can still be seen as an expression of a patient`s true desires, and whether healthcare workers should always follow them.

Living wills are legal documents that are filled in advance of the need for important medical decisions to indicate which health care options are or may not be desired now or in the future, and to designate one or more people to speak on behalf of the patient when the patient cannot speak for themselves. There are differences in living will laws by state. Many states now have doctor prescriptions for life-sustaining treatment (POLST), medical prescriptions for life-sustaining treatment (MOLST), medical prescriptions for scope of treatment (MOST), doctor`s prescription for scope of treatment (POST), no resuscitate prescription/clinician prescriptions for life-sustaining treatment (DNR/COLST), Transportable Physician Prescriptions for Patient Preferences (TPOPP) or similar guidelines that address the most important points of the living will in the form of a medical prescription put. [1] [2] [3] For the sake of brevity, the term POLST applies to all these variations later in the article. Giger, J. N., Davidhizar, R. E., & Fordham, P. (2006). Multicultural and multi-ethnic considerations and living wills: development of cultural competence. Zeitschrift für kulturelle Vielfalt, 13 (1), 3-9. Respect for autonomy and loyalty to the patient are widely recognized as fundamental values of medical professional ethics. For patients who do not have the ability to make decisions, these values are met by third-party decision-making and the use of living wills.

Living wills also support continuity of care for patients as they move between care facilities, physicians or care teams. Before starting or continuing treatment, including but not limited to life-sustaining interventions, the physician should: This sociocultural dependence on end-of-life decisions shows that the decision not to write a living will can also be understood as an expression of a qualitative personal identity. It can be part of personal self-understanding to rely on the family (or explicitly on people other than the family) or on God (as a religious person) or on experts (as a person who trusts science and medicine). However, it would be beneficial if this confidence in a proxy decision were explicitly communicated – otherwise it is to be expected that uncertainty will lead to many misunderstandings. There is therefore no obligation to write a patient mandate, but there are good reasons to consider one from the point of view of the ethics of a good life. If, on the other hand, someone imagines autonomy in such a way that it includes a self-critical reflection on the care and care of one`s own body [30], it becomes morally desirable to write a patient mandate. Recently, many doctors and lawyers have promoted living wills. Obviously, they offer moral and legal relief. In addition, there are a growing number of blank policies and forms that can be found on the Internet or promoted by legal entities.

Most of them present simple “yes or no” answers based on multiple-choice questionnaires. In addition, recent conceptions often suggest appointing an assistant such as a close relative or friend. This is interesting in that it seems that many people still do not know what the function of a health representative is (see [27]). In addition, the qualitative study by Sanders et al. [28] highlighted a moral problem caused by this educational material itself: it caused moral confusion and stress in the group of younger patients who interviewed them. It can be concluded that the promotion of living wills without thinking about the future importance for the individual and his environment causes new problems. Oorschrot, B., & Simon, A. (2007). Importance of the advance directive and the beginning of the death process from the point of view of German doctors and judges dealing with guardianship issues: results of an empirical investigation. Zeitschrift für Medizinethik, 32, 623-626. doi:10.1136/jme.2005.015032 At this stage, I favour an interpretation of identity that aims to define it as a qualitative term [25, p.

69]. This concept of personal identity, as proposed by Taylor [33], is based on psychological and socio-psychological, cultural and linguistic-pragmatic developmental hypotheses. It refers to a practical self-image that assumes that the question “What person am I?” goes hand in hand with the question “What community/group are we?” This correspondence of personal and socio-cultural identity is established during the joint implementation of social interaction. Identity is understood as a processualized, reflexive and intersubjective development. There may be competing interpretations of identity. They are evaluated, reinterpreted and weighted by the individual during his life. “Identity” itself could be seen as an object of negotiation and personal positioning. This idea is the most convincing for modern societies, as Anthony Giddens argues [8, 175ff]. Moreover, Giddens argues that it is quite implausible to believe that the individual is essentially passive in relation to overwhelming external social or cultural forces.

But modern social life offers mixed opportunities. Traditional and modern cultural lifestyles provide different resources and narratives that the human agent uses as possible models for his life projects – but not as fixed stories. Individuals are actively restructuring new forms of gender, family relationships, religion, workplace, healing, etc. However, the role of such models (or grand narratives) or social frameworks should not be underestimated: if we intend to understand and position ourselves, it is necessary to identify and reflect on these framework conditions. In emergency situations where a patient is unable to participate in treatment decisions and no surrogate mother or living will is available to make decisions, physicians should perform medically appropriate interventions when urgently needed to meet the patient`s immediate clinical needs. Interventions may be withdrawn at a later stage to accommodate the patient`s preferences when known and in accordance with ethical guidelines for discontinuation of treatment. A person who is seriously ill or injured may not be able to communicate about any medical treatment they wish to receive or refuse. Living wills are written statements that are prepared in advance and allow caregivers to inquire about a patient`s treatment wishes, or that legally establish another decision-maker in the event that the patient loses their decision-making capacity.